Hebrew Bible

Israel in Arabia

The unforgiving desert of Saudi Arabia has had periods of lushness. Did the Israelites flee Pharaoh just as the wilderness was greening? Do we still remember the Exodus because of an extraordinary series of lucky breaks? And how will we remember the extraordinary events we are living through today?

Conditional Commandments

There are three versions of the Ten Commandments in the Hebrew Bible, and the two variants in the book of Exodus have almost nothing in common. This makes the bedrock of belief in one god a flagrant example of the Bible’s internal contradictions. But there’s a deeper lesson here, and it’s not about how theft and murder are bad. It’s about the origins, and the actual age, of the Bible text itself.